Racial profiling paper

However, it was found that white students and nonwhite students held the same views about racial profiling in the context of crime.

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Essays, Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers on Politics.Racial profiling is a disputed term, embodying either a pernicious police practice or an intelligent application of police investigative skills, depending upon ideological perspective.

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Police records systems generally record only the fact of a stop, not its context.A further complication arises in the need to distinguish personal-use hits from the bulk drug seizures arising from the proper application of the drug courier profile, although the modern debate fails to pursue that distinction.A 2001 study analyzing data from the Richmond, Virginia Police Department found that African Americans were disproportionately stopped compared to their proportion in the general population, but that they were not searched more often than Whites.At the other pole, the fundamental belief is that disparate attention by the authorities is fully justified by the different patterns of conduct by different groups, specifically documented rates of criminality.

Racial profiling has become a major issue in the political field as well as in the area of law enforcement.

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The line that separates suspicion from probable cause is constantly tested in court proceedings.They are also more hypothetical at the individual level, insofar as recreational drug use is not inevitably a cause of further criminality.Questions of the accuracy and precision of application remain unanswered: Given the local control of police agencies, the questions are revisited on a case-by-case basis.For example, in one study done by Jeffrey Grogger and Greg Ridgeway, the veil of darkness hypothesis was used to determine whether or not racial profiling in traffic stops occurs in Oakland, California.Opponents assert that the nature of the stop and the inherently coercive presence of the police effectively eviscerate the right of refusal.

The Efficacy and Effect of Racial Profiling: A

Racial Profiling: Destroying Lives across America Racial Profiling: Destroying Lives across America Have you ever been mistaken for a criminal because you.You can use our professional writing services to order a custom research paper on criminal justice and get your high quality paper at affordable price.The inherent difference in the danger posed by market-quantity shipments, in contrast to personal-use quantities, is a potential limit on the latitude to be allowed government agents, and a fundamental problem with the game theory school of proof (discussed below).In the absence of those circumstances, however, a police officer may only request permission from the driver or owner to search the car for contraband.The vehicles were northbound at high rates of speed, usually occupied by two black or Latino males in their late teens or early twenties.Searching for equilibrium: The tenuous nature of the outcome test.

Basic civil rights preclude the use of the motoring public (or the ambulatory public) as a laboratory.They are defended by rules and expectations of conduct by agents of the state that do not allow random selection for the purposes of testing.Vehicle interiors contained fast-food wrappers and pillows and blankets (both indicative of nonstop travel), and detergent or other strong-smelling substances to mask the odor of drugs.Another study found that even within a single jurisdiction, racial disparity in stops increased with distance from the city border.Passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act coincided with the rise of black militancy, and continued conflict between blacks and whites continued well into the decade of the 1970s.Rational police officers would focus their efforts on groups most likely to carry drugs.

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Racial profiling is a matter of considerable concern in the U.S., and mutatis mutandis in other countries.

The trooper interrogated the family, questioned them about their nationality, and asked for proof of citizenship.Consent is a recognized exception to the Fourth Amendment warrant requirement: Police need not obtain a search warrant if the rightful owner of a property gives free and informed consent to the search.In this view, the fact that those who draw police attention are members of one or another minority is incidental to their demeanor and behavior, and irrelevant to the police decision to focus on them.That study also uncovered evidence of a possible gender bias in some jurisdictions (i.e., the propensity of male officers to stop single, young, female drivers), an artifact not pursued in other studies.Blacks made up 17% of the driving population, and slightly more of the violators, but were almost 73% of all persons searched.Different sets of proxy identifications exist for pedestrian stops at night, where slower speed and ambient light allow for the observation of race, bearing, and other factors.

The first is accumulated personal and vicarious experience, in which minority offenders play major roles.Police officers working in neighborhoods populated by minorities rightly argue that most of the people they encounter will be of minority status, whether the officers are prejudiced or committed to equality.Disparity can occur at multiple levels of police-initiated contact with citizens.The contemporary scholarly focus on racial profiling rests upon a debate regarding whether a variation on game theory can provide such a foundation.Examining each individual variable in the profile, rather than the collective weight of all the components, is an unusual approach, but the evidence of the resulting search was nevertheless suppressed.Texas, for example requires all agencies to provide annual reports to its Law Enforcement Commission.The scientific questions that have arisen in the wake of the Soto and Wilkins cases have examined a wider range of police activities and actions in numerous other venues.

Such comparisons are valid only in areas where there are significant opportunities to choose between minority and nonminority persons to stop.A National Analysis of Racial Profiling and Factors Affecting the. challenge all parts of racial inequality within the paper, and especially Dr.Have you ever walked down a street and judged a person based on the way he or she looked.I wrote a paper on racial profiling for high school, and someone suggest that I post it here.That profile arose from a specific fact pattern, closely matching observable characteristics with searches that found bulk drugs.Supporters of police profiling efforts point to the disproportionate presence of African American males in arrest, conviction, and imprisonment statistics.In 1984, Operation Pipeline adapted the practice to police highway drug interdiction, which sought to intercept bulk drugs in transit from southern points of entry.

Judicial tolerance of the consent search for drugs is one of the central questions in the racial profiling debate.